Science X Newsletter Wednesday, Mar 4

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Spotlight Stories Headlines A theoretical approach to understand the mechanisms of 3-D spatiotemporal mode-locking Tropical forests’ carbon sink is already rapidly weakening Google’s robot learns to walk in real world Probing microscopic wiggles in squishy materials ‘It’s like you have a hand again’: An ultra-precise mind-controlled prosthetic High energy Li-Ion battery is safer for electric vehicles Pesticides impair baby bee brain development Improved CRISPR gene drive solves problems of old tech In US, changing self-concept can lower well-being The brains of shrimps and insects are more alike than we thought Hydrogen sulfide heightens disease in tuberculosis, suggesting a new therapeutic target Biomaterial discovery enables 3-D printing of tissue-like vascular structures Scientists demonstrate first non-volatile nano relay operation at 200 C Embedded droplet printing-technology controllably prints and processes droplets that are suspended in place Gold-coated pantyhose inspire a technique for comfortable light-emitting clothing Astronomy & Space news Curiosity Mars rover snaps its highest-resolution panorama yet NASA’s Curiosity rover has captured its highest-resolution panorama yet of the Martian surface.Composed of more than 1,000 images taken during the 2019 Thanksgiving holiday and carefully assembled over the ensuing months, the composite contains 1.8 billion pixels of Martian landscape.The rover’s Mast Camera, or Mastcam, used its telephoto lens to produce the panorama; meanwhile, it relied on its medium-angle lens to produce a lower-resolution, nearly 650-million-pixel panorama that includes the rover’s deck and robotic arm.
3-D-printed thrust chamber passes first tests for vega evolutions The 3-D-printed thrust chamber assembly of the methane-fueled M10 rocket engine has passed its first series of hot firing tests.The M10 engine will power the upper stage of future Vega evolutions from 2025.
Routine radio-frequency testing of moon-bound Orion spacecraft begins Testing one, two and now, three.
Image: Vega’s titanium propellant tank This titanium propellant tank, on show in the laboratory corridor of ESA’s technical heart, comes from Europe’s Vega launcher—one of four serving its AVUM upper stage.
Japan suspends annual funding for Hawaii telescope project Japan suspended its yearly funding for a giant telescope project in Hawaii, citing an ongoing stalemate over its construction.
Technology news Google’s robot learns to walk in real world The field of robotics took one step forward—followed by another, then several more—when a robot called Rainbow Dash recently taught itself to walk.The four-legged machine only required a few hours to learn to walk backward and forward, and turn right and left while doing so.
High energy Li-Ion battery is safer for electric vehicles A lithium-ion battery that is safe, has high power and can last for 1 million miles has been developed by a team in Penn State’s Battery and Energy Storage Technology (BEST) Center.
Integrating electronics onto physical prototypes MIT researchers have invented a way to integrate “breadboards”—flat platforms widely used for electronics prototyping—directly onto physical products.The aim is to provide a faster, easier way to test circuit functions and user interactions with products such as smart devices and flexible electronics.
Robot uses artificial intelligence and imaging to draw blood Rutgers engineers have created a tabletop device that combines a robot, artificial intelligence and near-infrared and ultrasound imaging to draw blood or insert catheters to deliver fluids and drugs.
Households in Switzerland could feasibly be energy self-sufficient by 2050 By 2050, photovoltaic technologies that convert sunlight into electricity could enable many single- and multi-family buildings in Switzerland to produce enough energy to meet their own consumption needs, including the charging of electric vehicles.

Ursin Gstöhl and Stefan Pfenninger of ETH Zürich report these findings in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on March 4, 2020.
Fighting hand tremors: First comes AI, then robots Robots hold promise for a large number of people with neurological movement disorders severely affecting the quality of their lives.Now researchers have tapped artificial intelligence techniques to build an algorithmic model that will make the robots more accurate, faster, and safer when battling hand tremors.
Streaming titans seek passage to India for new growth Netflix and Amazon are battling a dizzying array of homegrown outfits, from Bollywood producers to broadcasters, for dominance of India’s streaming market, a key target as growth in Western countries slows.
Senators scrutinize web-scraping facial recognition startup U.S.senators are scrutinizing a facial recognition software company over privacy concerns and the possible sale of its services to authoritarian regimes.
Helping non-experts create mathematical models through natural selection Science and engineering applications such as control of high-precision motion systems or electrochemical processes are often built on mathematical models of dynamic systems.Ph.D.candidate Dhruv Khandelwal developed a framework that allows people without experience in data-driven modeling to fairly easily develop high-quality, optimized mathematical models of these dynamic systems.

This is a vital tool that can help researchers of any stripe navigate the complex maze of modeling technologies and systems dynamics, and support data-driven research output and valorization.For instance, electrical engineers managing the health of the electricity grid or researchers studying the growth of cancer cells.Khandelwal defends his Ph.D.

thesis on March 4.
Tunnel fire safety: With only minutes to respond, fire education really counts Global risk management experts are calling for fire education initiatives to be included in driver safety programs so that drivers are better prepared for an emergency if faced with it on the roads.
Collapsible basket technology aims to improve drug discovery, personalized medicine A drug discovery scientist typically screens up to 10,000 compounds in the early stages of developing one FDA approved drug.

During this high-throughput screening, candidate compounds are initially tested on cell and tissue samples.
GM shows 13 electric vehicles as it tries to run with Tesla General Motors, trying to refashion itself as a futuristic company with technology to compete against Tesla, rolled out plans Wednesday for 13 new electric vehicles during the next five years.
Twitter preps ephemeral tweets, starts testing in Brazil Twitter is starting to test tweets that disappear after 24 hours, although initially only in Brazil.
FBI working to ‘burn down’ cyber criminals’ infrastructure To thwart increasingly dangerous cyber criminals, law enforcement agents are working to “burn down their infrastructure” and take out the tools that allow them carry out their devastating attacks, FBI Director Christopher Wray said Wednesday.
Uber loses French case, driver declared employee France’s top civil court dealt ride-hailing giant Uber a setback on Wednesday with a key ruling that it had effectively employed one of its drivers.
UK airline Flybe nearing bankruptcy: reports Struggling British regional airline Flybe could be on the brink of bankruptcy, according to reports Wednesday, as the coronavirus epidemic takes a heavy toll on airlines around the world.
Virus hammers business travel as wary companies nix trips Amazon and other big companies are trying to keep their employees healthy by banning business trips, but they’ve dealt a gut punch to a travel industry already reeling from the virus outbreak.
Trade show blues: Exhibitions go virtual as virus spreads Fine wines and hipster gin.Hunting rifles and knives.

Contemporary paintings and million-dollar sports cars.They’re all marketed at trade events that are quickly going dark across the globe due to the new coronavirus – and taking with them sales opportunities that may be difficult to make up.
US, China clash over head of UN intellectual property agency Dozens of countries are voting Wednesday in a pivotal phase of an election to choose the next head of the U.N.’s intellectual property agency, a contest for a key post in the Digital Age that has pit the United States against China’s candidate.
Are political texts flooding your phone? Here’s why and how to stop them Political groups have been revving up their outreach efforts to reach voters and texting has been all the rage.

But for some people, the bombardment of political texts has become as much of a nuisance as robocalls.
Lufthansa to ground 150 planes over coronavirus German airline giant Lufthansa said Wednesday it would ground 150 of its more than 750 planes worldwide, days after announcing a slimmed-down timetable over the effects of the novel coronavirus.
Researchers identify novel cybersecurity approach to protect Army systems Researchers at the Army’s corporate laboratory in collaboration with the University of California, Riverside have identified an approach to network security that will enhance the effectiveness and timeliness of protection against adversarial intrusion and evasion strategies.
United Airlines tightens its belt as virus hits demand Citing diminished demand for flying due to the coronavirus epidemic, United Airlines said Wednesday it is putting a freeze on new hiring and delaying planned salary increases.
Medicine & Health news ‘It’s like you have a hand again’: An ultra-precise mind-controlled prosthetic In a major advance in mind-controlled prosthetics for amputees, University of Michigan researchers have tapped faint, latent signals from arm nerves and amplified them to enable real-time, intuitive, finger-level control of a robotic hand.
Hydrogen sulfide heightens disease in tuberculosis, suggesting a new therapeutic target A new culprit—hydrogen sulfide—has been found for the deadly infectious disease tuberculosis.Hydrogen sulfide gas is known for its rotten egg smell, yet it has normal physiological roles in the human body to communicate among cells.
Researchers help restore hormonal balance disrupted in metabolic diseases Many health problems in the developed world stem from the disruption of a delicate metabolic balance between glucose production and energy utilization in the liver.Now Yale scientists report March 4 in the journal Nature that they have discovered the molecular mechanisms that trigger metabolic imbalance between these two distinct but linked processes, a finding with implications for the treatment of diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
Newfound cell defense system features toxin-isolating ‘sponges’ A “decoy” mechanism has been found in human and animal cells to protect them from potentially dangerous toxins released by foreign invaders, such as bacteria.
Researchers catalog dozens of mutations in crucial brain development gene An international team of researchers that pooled genetic samples from developmentally disabled patients from around the world has identified dozens of new mutations in a single gene that appears to be critical for brain development.
Genetic variants place Asians at higher risk of side effects to common medications From commonly prescribed drugs for gout through to depression, there’s growing evidence that Asians are at a higher risk of side effects from many medications due to their genetic makeup.
Experimental drug may prevent chemotherapy drug from damaging the heart The commonly used chemotherapy drug doxorubicin can damage heart muscle, in some cases leading to severe or lethal heart failure.A new study led by Albert Einstein College of Medicine researchers and involving zebrafish and mice suggests that the experimental drug BAI1 can prevent doxorubicin from damaging the heart without lessening its anti-cancer properties.The study was published online in the journal Nature Cancer.
Tiny scorpion-derived proteins deliver arthritis drugs to joints in preclinical study Millions of Americans live with the pain and physical limitations of arthritis and other inflammatory diseases.

Steroids and other drugs can offer relief, but they can also come with a host of serious side effects.
Novel compound sparks new malaria treatment hope A novel class of antimalarial compounds that can effectively kill malaria parasites has been developed by Australian and US researchers.
Minorities’ higher psychosis risk linked to cultural distance from majority Social inequalities and language differences could be responsible for the higher psychosis risk in ethnic minority groups, finds a UCL-led study.
From scorpion to immunotherapy: Team repurposes nature’s toxin for CAR T City of Hope scientists have developed and tested the first chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy using chlorotoxin (CLTX), a component of scorpion venom, to direct T cells to target brain tumor cells, according to a preclinical study published today in Science Translational Medicine.The institution has also opened the first in-human clinical trial to use the therapy.
HIV reservoirs in humans: Immediate antiretroviral therapy makes them 100 times smaller HIV hides in reservoirs during antiretroviral therapy (ART).These viral sanctuaries are the reason why ART is not a cure.And research teams have striven for years to determine how the HIV reservoirs are established and maintained during ART.Thanks to an unprecedented access to blood, and biopsies of rectums and lymph nodes of people at the earliest stages of HIV infection, an international team of researchers at the University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM), the U.S.

Military HIV Research Program and the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre has shown that the first established reservoirs are still “sensitive” during these early stages and could be downsized about 100 times upon immediate ART initiation.
Newly discovered brain response to obesity drug may inform future treatments The U.S.Food and Drug Administration-approved drug liraglutide has been shown to help obese patients lose weight by suppressing their appetite.

However, where and how the drug acts in the brain was not fully understood, until now.A new preclinical study from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, published in Science Translational Medicine today, shows how liraglutide crosses the brain’s blood barrier to engage with a region of the brainstem known as the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), which is responsible for balancing food intake and energy expenditure.Filling this gap meets a need that has become a priority for researchers looking for new treatments to help fight the increasing rates of obesity.
Your smartphone is 7 times dirtier than your toilet.Here’s how to clean it.What’s the one item that never leaves your side?
Our eye movements help us retrieve memories, suggests new study In a recent study, scientists at Baycrest’s Rotman Research Institute (RRI) found that research participants moved their eyes to determine whether they had seen an image before, and that their eye movement patterns could predict mistakes in memory.They obtained these results using an innovative new eye tracking technique they developed.
Study identifies hormone that causes women to experience more pain than men Imagine taking a pill to control your pain and, instead, the medication actually increases the pain you feel.That may be the situation for patients who take opioids, but even more so for women, according to groundbreaking research by investigators at the University of Arizona College of Medicine—Tucson in the Department of Pharmacology.
Mother nose best: Child body odor provides olfactory clues to developmental stages It’s no secret that babies generally smell pleasant to their mothers—and teenagers not so much.A team of researchers investigating how body odors affect the mother-child relationship found that a mom’s olfactory sense may be capable of detecting her child’s developmental stage.

The research was published in the journal Frontiers in Psychology.
Bereaved individuals may face higher risk of dying from melanoma Individuals who experience the loss of a partner are less likely to be diagnosed with melanoma but face an increased risk of dying from the disease, according to research published in the British Journal of Dermatology.
Safe tackling, padded helmets lower head injuries in youth football Middle school football players greatly reduce the chance of head injuries if they wear padded helmets and use safe tackling and blocking techniques, according to Rutgers researchers.
Gene variants may increase susceptibility to accumulate Alzheimer’s protein tau The toxic protein tau is a key biological feature in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease.Yet the factors that make people susceptible or resistant to tau accumulation are not well-understood.A preliminary Mayo Clinic study shows that inherited DNA variants may be associated with developing tau deposits in older adults.The research will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology’s 72nd Annual Meeting in Toronto April 25-May 1.
Breastfeeding and risks of allergies and asthma In an Acta Paediatrica study, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 3 months was linked with a lower risk of respiratory allergies and asthma when children reached 6 years of age.
New normal in virus-hit China: High-tech tracking and fever checks Constant temperature checks, a “no mask, no service” ethos, and high-tech people-tracking: welcome to the new normal in China, where reminders of the country’s national mobilisation against the coronavirus lurk around every corner.
South Korea reports lowest new infections for a week South Korea reported its lowest number of new novel coronavirus cases for a week Wednesday, as the government proposed a near-$10 billion additional budget to try to address the epidemic’s impact.
US leads global fight against coronavirus economic threat The US Federal Reserve on Tuesday led the global charge in response to the growing economic risk posed by the new coronavirus, announcing an emergency interest rate cut after the UN health agency said the world has entered “uncharted territory.”
ADHD diagnoses increasing in black kids, report suggests For the first time, a U.S.

survey found that black children appear to be more likely than white kids to be diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other learning disabilities.
Doctors try 1st CRISPR editing in the body for blindness Scientists say they have used the gene editing tool CRISPR inside someone’s body for the first time, a new frontier for efforts to operate on DNA, the chemical code of life, to treat diseases.
WHO warns of mask shortages as virus cases rise worldwide Countries rushed to protect their supply of masks on Wednesday as panic buying, hoarding and theft spread over fears of the deadly coronavirus epidemic, with global health officials warning that stocks of protective gear were rapidly dwindling.
S.Korea hunts sick beds as West braces for long virus fight South Korea struggled to find enough beds for its sick, Italy grappled with a rising number of deaths and concern grew over an expanding outbreak in the United States on Wednesday as the new virus that tormented China expanded elsewhere.
Germany bans export of medical protective gear over coronavirus Germany’s interior ministry on Wednesday said it had banned exports of medical protection gear such as masks and gloves to ensure that health workers in the country have enough to deal with the coronavirus outbreak.
Doctors overestimate the size of benefits and harms of treatments UK general practitioners tend to overestimate the benefit or harm associated with prescription drugs for long-term conditions, meaning they rely on their broad understanding rather than precise knowledge of treatment effects, according to a survey by Oxford University researchers.
Study identifies cancer patients most likely to develop cachexia It is estimated that as many as 80% of advanced-stage cancer patients may develop cachexia, a potentially fatal metabolic syndrome characterized by extreme weight loss and muscle wasting, but scientists do not yet fully understand why it is more frequently associated with certain kinds of tumor than others, or why not all cancer patients develop it.
Evolution and spine shape may predispose you to back problems The reason many humans experience pain in their lower back can be found in our evolutionary past, according to new research from a team of bioarchaeologists at the University of Sydney, Simon Fraser University and the University of Liverpool.
Why runner’s addiction is adding to your injury woes Each week, millions of people around the world lace up their running shoes, spurred on by the psychological, health and social benefits that running delivers.
Take small bites toward better nutrition Good nutrition doesn’t have to be difficult or restrictive, and achieving good eating habits can be done bit by bit or, more accurately, bite by bite, said Jenna Anding, Ph.D., a registered dietician nutritionist with the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service.
Researchers find flooding stress impacts unborn children NDSU researchers have discovered differences in child development based on how close mothers are to flooding during their pregnancies.The new study found that being pregnant near flooding has an impact on child development similar to the impact of PTSD symptoms during pregnancy.
Vaping bans are ineffective, experts report Vaping products have contributed to a decline in cigarette smoking but have increased the number of middle and high school students who are addicted to nicotine—a problem that can only be effectively addressed through regulation of advertising—according to drug policy experts at Rice University’s Baker Institute for Public Policy.
Coronavirus: 5 ways to put evidence into action during outbreaks like COVID-19 Health crises like the current COVID-19 outbreak have the potential to affect large numbers of people and disrupt health systems.The urgency and scale of a health crisis often mean that life-saving decisions about treatment and containment must be made quickly.
How do we detect if coronavirus is spreading in the community? The daily number of new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) cases is now nine times higher outside China than in the country where the disease was first detected.
Precision medicine treatments for Parkinson’s disease closer to reality A huge step forward has been made in understanding the multiple ways Parkinson’s Disease can develop; the findings of which could be a crucial catalyst to discover new personalized drug treatments.
Household chemical use linked to child language delays Young children from low-income homes whose mothers reported frequent use of toxic chemicals such as household cleaners were more likely to show delays in language development by age 2, a new study found.
How the Democratic Republic of Congo found the road to being Ebola-free At the beginning of March the authorities in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) announced that the last Ebola patient had been discharged from a treatment centre.

The country has been in the grip of an Ebola outbreak since August 2018.

More than 3,300 cases were confirmed and 2,264 people died.

The last case was reported on February 17th.Now the countdown towards declaring the end of the world’s second largest Ebola outbreak begins.The World Health Organisation has put a time line of 42 days on this.The Conversation Africa’s Ina Skosana spoke to Yap Boum about the latest developments.
Obesity and tumors: What’s cancer eating for lunch? Obesity is one of the leading factors contributing to cancer development worldwide.
Truck drivers with high caffeine intake crash more often than others Lorry drivers who consumed large amounts of coffee and energy drinks reported having crashed more compared to those only drank small quantities of caffeine, according to new research.
Storytelling can promote HPV vaccination among Asian-American women Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders—what demographers call AAPIs—are the nation’s fastest-growing minority.

Close to 20 million now live in the U.S.

But you wouldn’t know it from our public health data, where AAPIs are underrepresented.Nowhere is that more apparent than in the data on cervical cancer screenings.
Cough, fever most common initial symptoms of COVID-19 Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often have fever and cough on presentation, according to research published online Feb.28 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
NICE guidelines presented for management of thyroid disease In a summary of a recent guideline from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), published online Jan.29 in The BMJ, recommendations are presented for the assessment and management of thyroid disease.
H1N1 flu outbreak of 2009 helped ready U.S.hospitals for coronavirus As the new coronavirus spreads across the United States, leading health experts are noting that America has been here before—and past lessons are helping officials prepare for today’s crisis.
COVID-19 highly uncertain, global costs could be very high ANU researchers give the first wide-ranging global economic assessment of the effects of Covid-19 to help policy policymakers prepare a coordinated response to the economic costs of a pandemic and as the virus evolves.
Can boxing improve quality of life for people with Parkinson’s disease? People with Parkinson’s disease who participate in a special, non-contact boxing program may have better quality of life and be more likely to exercise than those who do not participate, according to a preliminary study released today that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology’s 72nd Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada, April 25 to May 1, 2020.
Study: Smartphone users with headache may use more medication and find less relief People with headache who use smartphones may be more likely to use more pain medication and find less relief when they do than people with headache who do not use smartphones, according to a preliminary study published in the March 4, 2020, online issue of Neurology Clinical Practice, an official journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

The study does not prove that smartphone use causes greater use of pain medication and less relief; it only shows an association.
Decades-old antidepressant may fend off prostate cancer’s return An antidepressant in use for decades, repurposed to fight prostate cancer, shows promise in helping patients whose disease has returned following surgery or radiation, a pilot study at USC shows.
Studies show number of US medical students with disabilities grows, but disparities continue Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report that the number of disabled students admitted to U.S.medical schools rose from 2.9% to 4.9% over the last three years.However, the percentage of NIH-funded researchers with disabilities declined between 2008 and 2018.The grant success rate for this group was lower than for researchers without a disability, indicating that despite more people with disabilities prepared to enter biomedical research, their prospects as professionals are weakening.
New evidence supports ablation for heart failure patients with atrial fibrillation Only 1 in 13 everyday patients could have participated in a pivotal international clinical trial looking at the use of catheter ablation to treat atrial fibrillation (AFib) among people with heart failure.

However, new Mayo Clinic research provides evidence supporting the benefit of ablation, and shows what the outcomes might be for everyday patients.The Mayo study will be published in Heart Rhythm Journal.
Testing with combined biopsy method improves prostate cancer diagnosis A method of testing for prostate cancer developed at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) leads to more accurate diagnosis and prediction of the course of the disease, according to a large study.This method, which combines systematic biopsy, the current primary diagnostic approach, with MRI-targeted biopsy, is poised to greatly improve prostate cancer diagnosis, thereby reducing the risk of both overtreatment and undertreatment of the disease.NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health.
Fish oil supplements linked to lower risk of heart disease and death: study Regular use of fish oil supplements may be linked to a lower risk of death and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, such as heart attack and stroke, suggests an analysis of data from the UK Biobank study, published in The BMJ today.
New measure for excessive buying problems Excessive or uncontrolled buying or shopping is a highly prevalent, disabling and growing problem, yet measuring the extent and effects of this significant psychological problem and social issue remains problematic.
Women deflated by #Fitspiration images Researchers have found that the #Fitspiration philosophy is flawed, making many women feel worse about themselves and their bodies rather than inspiring them to exercise.
Pet dog infected with COVID-19, Hong Kong authorities confirm The pet dog of a coronavirus patient in Hong Kong was confirmed to be infected with the disease, in a likely case of human-to-animal transmission, authorities said on Wednesday.
EU agency takes centre stage in fight against coronavirus As governments across Europe prepare for a sustained battle against the new coronavirus, a relatively small EU agency is becoming increasingly important.
New platform for cancer diagnostics and drug testing Parts of tumor tissue, which is normally discarded in cancer surgery, bear information about the disease.

So far, as studies at the University of Gothenburg show, this has been unexploited.This research forms the basis for a new experimental platform for cancer diagnostics, prognoses and testing cancer drugs.
T2DM remission rates higher with RYGB versus sleeve gastrectomy (HealthDay)—Most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) undergoing bariatric surgery experience T2DM remission during five years of follow-up, but outcomes are superior with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) compared with sleeve gastrectomy (SG), according to a study published online March 4 in JAMA Surgery.
Short-term medications may cut risk for ‘broken heart’ syndrome (HealthDay)—In early bereavement, low-dose metoprolol and aspirin reduces physiological and psychological surrogate measures of cardiovascular risk, according to a study published in the February issue of the American Heart Journal.
Bilingualism acts as a cognitive reserve factor against dementia The conclusions of a study carried out by Víctor Costumero, as the first author, Marco Calabria and Albert Costa (died in 2018), members of the Speech Production and Bilingualism (SPB) group at the Cognition and Brain Center (CBC) of the Department of Information Technology and the Communications (DTIC) of the UPF, together with researchers from the Universities of Jaume I, Valencia, Barcelona and Jaén; IDIBELL, Hospital La Fe (Valencia) and Grupo Médico ERESA (Valencia) show that bilingualism acts as a cognitive reserve factor against dementia.

Lidón Marín, one of the authors of the article, states that “although sick bilinguals show a greater brain atrophy, the cognitive level among bilinguals and monolinguals is the same.The work has been published in the scientific journal Alzheimer’s Research and Therapy with the title “A cross-sectional and longitudinal study on the protective effect of bilingualism against dementia using brain atrophy and cognitive measures.” It has been financed by La Marató de TV3 Foundation.
Shift in birth timing tied to decline in birth weights (HealthDay)—If rates of obstetric practices had not changed between 1990 and 2013 to include more cesarean deliveries and inductions, then the average U.S.birth weight likely would have increased over this time, according to research published online Jan.29 in Demography.
Digital heart model will help predict future heart health, new study finds In recent times, researchers have increasing found that the power of computers and artificial intelligence is enabling more accurate diagnosis of a patient’s current heart health and can provide an accurate projection of future heart health, potential treatments and disease prevention.
Dental teams could play an important role in early diagnosis of type 2 and pre-diabetes Dental teams could play an integral role in identifying people at high risk of developing Type 2 diabetes as well as in the early detection of the condition in those who are undiagnosed, new research suggests.
Recommendations provided for treatment of ulcerative colitis (HealthDay)—In a new clinical guideline from the American Gastroenterological Association, recently published in Gastroenterology, treatment recommendations are presented for patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC).
How millennials’ notions on food are changing the entire system Like the baby boomers before them, millennials tend to do things their own way, and that’s not just a reference to their often-stereotyped love of avocado toast.
Family history of heart disease makes premature removal of ovaries especially risky Women who proactively have their ovaries removed to minimize their cancer risk may face a greater risk—premature death because of heart disease.That’s according to a new study that identifies an increased risk for women with a family history of premature heart disease who underwent prophylactic oophorectomies before the age of 45.

Study results are published online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS).
Better planning could save millions in health care costs Nearly 30% of the $3.6 trillion spent on health care costs in the United States is wasted.New research from Michigan State University and Rutgers University reveals the amount of money washed away in hospital operating rooms, offering solutions to save hospitals—and the country—millions of dollars each year.
Using ultrasound localization microscopy to detect oxygen levels in tissues Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign are using a new application of an existing imaging technique that may help detect tumors in humans.
Being overweight may raise your risk for advanced prostate cancer A new study links being overweight in middle age and later adulthood to a greater risk of advanced prostate cancer.Jeanine Genkinger, Ph.D., an epidemiologist at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, and colleagues published the study in Annals of Oncology, the journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology and Japanese Society of Medical Oncology.
Impact of obesity on ability to work highest amongst women over 50 New research has shown that older workers with obesity are at a higher risk of prolonged sickness absence or losing their jobs for health reasons than those of normal weight, with women affected significantly more than men.
Reducing problem behaviors for children with autism Self-inflicted injury, aggression toward others and yelling are common problem behaviors associated with young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

These actions can result from the child being denied attention or access to items they enjoy, as well as from internal discomfort or environmental stressors such as noise or large crowds.
Virus death rate still uncertain as mild cases are missed How deadly is the coronavirus that exploded from China? The answer reflects a hard reality about fast-moving outbreaks: As cases pop up in new places, the first to get counted are the sickest.
Italy closes schools as death toll hits 107 Italy on Wednesday closed all schools and universities until March 15 as the number of deaths from the new coronavirus in the Mediterranean country hit 107.
Travel is safe despite virus, US industry chiefs say Travel in the United States is safe and the economic hit from the coronavirus will be minimal, industry chiefs said Wednesday, even as cases of the virus multiply in the country.
Germany calls coronavirus ‘pandemic’ as countries bolster prevention Germany warned Wednesday that the coronavirus outbreak has turned into a global pandemic, as countries around the world bolstered supplies and boosted protective measures in a bid to slow the rapid rise of the deadly disease.
AI may help spot newborns at risk for most severe form of blinding disease An artificial intelligence (AI) device that has been fast-tracked for approval by the Food and Drug Administration may help identify newborns at risk for aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (AP-ROP).AP-ROP is the most severe form of ROP and can be difficult to diagnose in time to save vision.The findings of the National Eye Institute-funded study published online February 7 in Ophthalmology.
New coronavirus deaths in US as lawmakers reach funding deal The death toll in the United States from the new coronavirus rose to 11 on Wednesday, as lawmakers in Congress reached a deal to provide more than $8 billion to fight the outbreak.
Hypertension in young adulthood associated with cognitive decline in middle age High blood pressure, or hypertension, affects everything from your arteries to your kidneys, from eyesight to sexual function.Among older adults, high blood pressure is also associated with cognitive decline as a result of interrupted blood flow to the brain, as well as strokes, heart attacks and impaired mobility.
Italy deploys emergency field hospitals to fight virus A blue tent packed with masked medics in nylon overalls and rubber gloves greets patients outside an Italian hospital at the European epicentre of the new coronavirus epidemic.
Coronavirus lingers in rooms and toilets, but disinfectants kill it: study New research from Singapore published Wednesday showed that patients with the novel coronavirus extensively contaminate their bedrooms and bathrooms, underscoring the need to routinely clean high-touch surfaces, basins and toilet bowls.
How loneliness affects end-of-life experiences In a study of Americans over age 50 years who died between 2004 and 2014, individuals who were characterized as lonely based on survey results were burdened by more symptoms and received more intense end-of-life care compared with non-lonely people.
Risks of later abortions on subsequent births New research indicates that a prior induced abortion poses only a very small risk of negative effects on births from subsequent pregnancies, but the risk is higher if the abortion is performed later in the pregnancy.
Electrical stimulation helps treat constipation in clinical trial Electrical stimulation benefited women with constipation in a recent clinical trial published in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics.
Certain factors predict smoking cessation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis Smoking doubles the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis and continuing to smoke after being diagnosed has negative effects on patients.In an Arthritis Care & Research study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who smoked, certain healthcare factors were linked with a higher likelihood that patients would quit smoking.
Lung diseases linked to higher rheumatoid arthritis risk Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were each associated with increased risk for developing rheumatoid arthritis in a study published in Arthritis & Rheumatology.
Study examines potential link between partner bereavement and skin cancer Psychological stress has been proposed as a risk factor for melanoma, but clinical evidence is limited.
Multi-country study reveals shortcomings in treating obesity To address obesity worldwide, changes are needed in both the availability of treatments and the attitudes of clinicians.That’s the conclusion of a survey-based study of health professionals.
Weight loss surgery may increase fracture risk Individuals who undergo weight loss surgery may face an elevated risk of bone fractures, according to a study published in the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Does antibiotic use during pregnancy and infancy impact childhood obesity? Use of antibiotics during pregnancy does not appear to affect children’s weight in subsequent years, but use during infancy may increase their risk of becoming overweight or obese.

The findings come from an analysis published in the journal Obesity.
Young women with breast cancer may face financial hardship after diagnosis Young women with breast cancer experienced substantial financial difficulties in the wake of a breast cancer diagnosis, even if they had stable jobs with insurance benefits.
Chinese researchers detail chest CT findings in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia A multi-center study (n=101) of the relationship between chest CT findings and the clinical conditions of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia—published ahead-of-print and open-access in the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR)—determined that most patients with COVID-19 pneumonia have ground-glass opacities (GGO) (86.1%) or mixed GGO and consolidation (64.4%) and vascular enlargement in the lesion (71.3%).
Russia bans export of masks, hazmat suits to fight virus Russia has banned the export of masks, respirators and hazmat suits to ensure access to the items for medics treating coronavirus patients and the public, under a decree published Wednesday.
Indonesia seizes half a million virus masks amid panic buying Indonesian police seized over half a million face masks from a Jakarta-area warehouse after the country’s first confirmed cases of coronavirus sparked panic buying and sent prices for prevention products skyrocketing.
Hong Kongers hit hiking trails to escape coronavirus woes Hong Kongers are escaping the coronavirus anxiety that has gripped the crowded city by heading for the hills to find fresh air and space to exercise.
Italian tourists in India quarantined with coronavirus A group of Italian tourists were under quarantine in India Wednesday, with 16 testing positive for the new coronavirus, prompting authorities to tighten controls.
Virus panic buying prompts toilet roll rationing Down Under Australia’s biggest supermarket on Wednesday announced a limit on toilet paper purchases after the global spread of coronavirus sparked a spate of panic buying Down Under.
Amazon worker in US quarantined with novel coronavirus Amazon confirmed Tuesday that an employee who works in the internet giant’s home city of Seattle had been quarantined after testing positive for the new coronavirus.
Iraq announces two coronavirus deaths Iraqi health authorities announced on Wednesday the country’s first two deaths from the new coronavirus, one in the capital Baghdad and the other in the autonomous Kurdish region.
Poland announces first coronavirus case Poland on Wednesday announced its first case of coronavirus while adding that nearly 70 people were being tested for the disease.
Iran says 92 dead amid 2,922 cases of the new coronavirus Iran says the new coronavirus has killed 92 people amid 2,922 confirmed cases across the Islamic Republic.
Real-world evidence empowers personalized decisions about weight-loss surgery With today’s JAMA Surgery publication of findings on how many adults see their Type 2 diabetes go away and come back following weight-loss surgery, the PCORnet Bariatric Study now provides patients and their doctors with a more complete picture about the comparative benefits and risks of the two most commonly used bariatric procedures.
Anti-virus measures take drastic turns in Saudi, Iran, Italy Saudi Arabia banned citizens from performing this year’s Muslim pilgrimage in Mecca, Italy weighed closing schools nationwide and Iran cancelled Friday prayers for a second week as nations scrambled Wednesday to control the coronavirus outbreak.
No money for masterpieces: Louvre bans cash over virus fears The Louvre museum in Paris is temporarily no longer accepting cash as part of new measures that helped persuade employees worried about catching the coronavirus to return to work Wednesday.
Israel severely restricts entry from Europe due to virus Israel on Wednesday imposed tough new travel restrictions on five European nations due to fears of coronavirus, barring entry to almost all non-residents of the Jewish state arriving from these affected countries.
Virus fears prompt Italy to ban kisses, handshakes Italy was set Wednesday to ask people to stop greeting each other by kissing or shaking hands to limit the spread of the new coronavirus.
Coronavirus: Europe readies plans for worst-case scenario From calling in the army to requisitioning hospital beds, European nations are drawing up emergency plans should the coronavirus outbreak reach pandemic proportions and severely disrupt daily life.
Researchers identify ways to improve care to trafficked children Newly published research by a CU School of Medicine faculty member and colleagues identifies multiple ways that health care providers and organizations can improve the quality of care provided to trafficked children.
Coronavirus treatment and risk to breastfeeding women Little data is available about the ability of antiviral drugs used to treat COVID-19, coronavirus, to enter breastmilk, let alone the potential adverse effects on breastfeeding infants.A new perspective article reviewing what is known about the most commonly used drugs to treat coronavirus and influenza is published in Breastfeeding Medicine.
Hungary reports first two novel coronavirus cases Hungary reported its first confirmed cases of the novel coronavirus on Wednesday—two Iranians studying in the EU member state.
FDA bans shock device used on mentally disabled patients Federal officials on Wednesday banned electrical shock devices used to discourage aggressive, self-harming behavior in patients with mental disabilities.
Egypt to ban entry to Qataris over coronavirus Egypt’s government said Wednesday it will ban Qatari nationals from entry over fears of coronavirus after the oil-rich Gulf state took similar measures against people coming from Egypt.
Little tissue, big mission: Beating heart tissues to ride aboard the ISS Launching no earlier than March 6 at 11:50 PM EST, the Johns Hopkins University will send heart muscle tissues, contained in a specially-designed tissue chip the size of a small cellphone, up to the microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS) for one month of observation.
Senegal confirms two new coronavirus patients, both Europeans Two new infections of coronavirus were detected in Senegal on Wednesday, bringing to four the number of people infected in the sub-Saharan nation, health officials said.
In Italy and beyond, virus outbreak reshapes work and play Italy closed all schools and universities Wednesday and barred fans from all sporting events for the next few weeks, as governments trying to curb the spread of the coronavirus around the world resorted to increasingly sweeping measures that transformed the way people work, shop, pray and amuse themselves.
Biology news Pesticides impair baby bee brain development Imperial College London researchers used micro-CT scanning technology to reveal how specific parts of bumblebee brains grew abnormally when exposed to pesticides during their larval phase.
Improved CRISPR gene drive solves problems of old tech Gene drives use genetic engineering to create a desired mutation in a few individuals that then spreads via mating throughout a population in fewer than 10 generations.
The brains of shrimps and insects are more alike than we thought New research shows that crustaceans such as shrimps, lobsters and crabs have more in common with their insect relatives than previously thought—when it comes to the structure of their brains.
Why men (and other male animals) die younger: It’s all in the Y chromosome According to popular theory, men live shorter lives than women because they take bigger risks, have more dangerous jobs, drink and smoke more, and are poor at seeking advice from doctors.
Regional stability of ecosystems over time depends on local species diversity Diversity plays a key role in maintaining the stability of plant and animal life in an area.But it’s difficult to scale up smaller experiments to understand how changes will impact larger ecosystems.
How will billions of marine microbes adapt to climate change? Climate change is heating the oceans, which affects billions of marine microbes in ways scientists don’t fully understand.In response, USC researchers have developed a model to forecast how these important organisms will adapt to warming seas.
The caterpillar larvae ‘plastivores’ that consume and metabolize polyethylene A team of researchers at Brandon University has found that greater wax moth caterpillar larvae are “plastivores” that are able to consume and metabolize polyethylene.In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the group describes their study of the caterpillars and what they learned about them and their gut microbiome.
Experiments show dogs can ‘smell’ radiated heat A combined team of researchers from Lund University in Sweden and Eötvös Loránd University in Hungary has found evidence that dogs are able to “smell” radiated heat.In their paper published in the journal Scientific Reports, the group describes experiments they conducted with dogs and what they learned from them.
New insights into evolution: Why genes appear to move around Scientists at Uppsala University have proposed an addition to the theory of evolution that can explain how and why genes move on chromosomes.The hypothesis, called the SNAP Hypothesis, is presented in the scientific journal PLOS Genetics.
Honeybee dance dialects After more than 70 years, a great mystery of zoology has been solved: Honeybees actually use different dance dialects in their waggle dance.

Which dialect has developed during evolution is related to the radius of action in which they collect food around the hive.
Scientists discover new repair mechanism for alcohol-induced DNA damage Researchers of the Hubrecht Institute (KNAW) in Utrecht, The Netherlands, and the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, United Kingdom, have discovered a new way in which the human body repairs DNA damage caused by a degradation product of alcohol.

That knowledge underlines the link between alcohol consumption and cancer.The research groups of Puck Knipscheer and Ketan J.Patel worked together on this study and published the results in the scientific journal Nature on the 4th of March.
Researchers pinpoint mechanism controlling cell protein traffic Cells depend on signaling to regulate most life processes, including cell growth and differentiation, immune response and reactions to various stresses.
Flower faithful native bee makes a reliable pollinator Entomologists at UC Riverside have documented that a species of native sweat bee widespread throughout North and South America has a daily routine that makes it a promising pollinator.
New insights into the transatlantic slave trade on African ancestry in the Americas The Transatlantic Slave Trade transported more than 9 million Africans to the Americas between the early 16th and the mid-19th centuries.In the past decade, scientists have utilized extensive genomic analyses to better understand the patterns of African-American ancestry in today’s populations, and help reconstruct the past by taking into consideration the complex geographical and geopolitical history of the Slave Trade.
Rare albino orangutan spotted in Borneo rainforest The world’s only known albino orangutan has been spotted alive and well in a Borneo rainforest, more than a year after she was released into the wild, conservationists say.
Let’s teach Australian kids more about dugongs than dinosaurs with these books Identifying the difference between a native burrowing frog and an introduced cane toad is fundamental ecological knowledge.

After bushfires ravaged Australia’s animal and plant communities and razed millions of hectares of land, such knowledge has never been more important.
Photos from Yosemite suggest secretive forest predator might be moving north New photographs from Yosemite National Park in California’s Sierra Nevada represent an exciting development in the recovery of the fisher, a fierce and secretive predator whose numbers dwindled in the 19th and 20th centuries due to fur trapping and logging.
A new genus of forking fern family reported Gleichenia boryi is a poorly known species of Gleicheniaceae (the forking fern family) endemic to Madagascar and La Réunion Island.This fern was distinct from other Gleicheniaceae in its leaf morphology.However, the generic relationships of this fern have not been investigated until now.
Scientists report new biological control for noxious parthenium weed in Pakistan CABI scientists, as part of an international team of researchers, have discovered a new biological control in the fight against the highly noxious and invasive weed parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus) in Pakistan.
Nutrient pollution and ocean warming negatively affect early life of corals Corals are constantly exposed to multiple environmental stressors at any given time.On a global scale, climate change is increasing seawater temperatures which can cause coral to bleach.Locally, land-use practices can cause poor water quality run-off of land-based fertilizers and sediment washing over our coral reefs.A new study conducted by researchers at the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) found the survival and development of coral larvae in their first few days of life was negatively affected by elevated nutrients and a modest increase in water temperature.
Sea level rise impacts to Canaveral sea turtle nests will be substantial Sea level rise and hurricanes are a threat to sea turtle nesting habitat along national seashores in the Southeast, but a new study predicts the greatest impact to turtles will be at Canaveral National Seashore.
Rapid DNA test quickly identifies victims of mass casualty event To quickly identify victims of the 2018 Camp Fire, the deadliest wildfire in California’s history, researchers used a technique called Rapid DNA Identification that can provide results within hours, compared with months to years required of conventional DNA analysis.
Pakistan struggles to combat devastating locust plague Pakistan’s farmers are struggling to combat the worst locust plague in nearly three decades as insect swarms decimate entire harvests in the country’s agricultural heartlands and send food prices soaring.
The birds and the bees: Transform your garden or balcony into a wildlife haven Just like humans, animals like living near coastal plains and waterways.

In fact, cities such as Sydney and Melbourne are “biodiversity hotspots”—boasting fresh water, varied topographies and relatively rich soil to sustain and nourish life.
Book on plants in the Murmansk region (Russia) scores 4/19 correct insect identifications A recently published book on some aspects of the ecology of woody introducents in the Murmansk oblast of Russia provides the information on 19 species of plant-damaging insects out of which only 4 species are identified correctly.Dr.

Mikhail V.Kozlov from the University of Turku provides correct identifications for the insects, illustrated in the book, in his paper, published in the open-access journal Arctic Environmental Research, in order to prevent the spread of erroneous information across future publications and databases.
A model proposed for predicting photodamage and development of plant protection mechanisms Light is the main source of energy for photosynthesis, it underlies the production process in plants.At the same time, excessive lighting can lead to photodamage of the photosynthetic apparatus and, indirectly, of other structures of the plant cell.In order to avoid such damage, plants have developed a number of protective mechanisms, including so-called ‘non-photochemical fluorescence quenching.”
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